Essential English grammar for English Grammar speaking series- Part 1

I normally do not emphasize on the grammar. Infact, I always say that grammar is not that important for english speaking.

But here I am going to talk about grammar part. This part is mainly for those who are already speaking. If you have not yet followed my advice and using our Marathi 2 English Speaking Course, then pl do skip this article.

A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing—as, Amitabh Bachhan, Mumbai, pencil. A noun may also name an
idea, a quality, or an action. Such names as beauty, noise,odor, and pain express ideas that one gains through the senses. Names of qualities include such words as honesty.

While names of actions comprise hundreds of words like counting, filing, writing.

Pronoun
A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun.
Pronouns are classified as follows:
Personal pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we and they.

Relative pronouns: who, which, that, and what.

Interrogative pronouns: who, which, and what.

Demonstrative pronouns: this and that, and the plurals these and those.

Indefinite pronouns: one, any, anyone, someone, none, each, both, another, etc.

Reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another.

Compound personal pronouns: myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, and itself.

Verb
A verb is a word that asserts — as, ” Business men work.”

Sometimes a group of words, called a verb phrase, is used to make an assertion. Such a phrase consists of a principal verb and one or more helping words, called auxiliary verbs.

The auxiliary verbs include the various forms of the verbs be (is, am, are, was, were, has been, have been), may, can, must, might, could, would, should, will, shall, ought, have, do, and did.

The following sentences contain verb phrases –

1. Your order will receive prompt attention.
2. We shall he glad to hear from you in a few days.
3. Our draft has been returned.

An adjective –
An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun.

An adverb –
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective,
or another adverb. The following sentences contain adverbs:
1. You are cordially invited to be present at a Private Exhibition of our new spring hats.
2. We were extremely sorry to learn from your letter of April 4 that the table was damaged.
3. We will very gladly take back the two coats.

An adverb answers the question when? where? why? how? how many? or how much?

The words how, when, where, and why are sometimes used in asking questions, and in
such cases are called interrogative adverbs.

A preposition –
A preposition is a word that is used to show the relation between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in the sentence — as, ” Our draft of November 10 has been returned to us.”

A conjunction –
A conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, or clauses. These sentences illustrate the three uses:
1. Manufacturers and wholesalers allow credits varying from ten to ninety days.
2. The business envelope bears in its upper left-hand corner or on the flap the name and address of the house.
3. Some business houses prefer to have all letters single spaced, hut others prefer to have them double spaced.

To determine what part of speech a word is, therefore, you must answer the question,How is it used in the sentence?
It will be necessary also in this lesson to review briefly sentence, clause, and phrase.

A sentence is the expression of a complete thought in words. The simplest sentence must necessarily have a subject, the word or expression that names the person, thing, idea, quality, or action about which an assertion is made, and a predicate, the word or words that say something about the subject.

In the sentence, ” The customer paid cash for the goods,” the subject is The customer and the predicate paid cash for the goods, of which paid is the verb.

Some sentences also contain an object, that is, a word or group of words that completes the  meaning of the verb and tells what is acted upon,—as,  ”The salesman broke his pencil. ”

Here pencil is the object of broke.

Simple sentences become more complex as modifiers — words, phrases, and clauses — are added.

A phrase is a group of words that does not have a subject and predicate. It generally consists of a preposition and its object, or of an infinitive or participle and its object.

The following sentences contain phrases:
1. The president of the company resigned.
2. The man wanted to study salesmanship.
3. The bond, torn to pieces, was found in the waste basket.

As I said, do not get overwhelmed with this grammar part. But if you are already confident about it, then be sure to read other articles in this series.

Rajesh Gurule