A word which modifies, or states the attributes of a noun or pronoun. From the point of view of their position in the sentence, adjectives are of two kindsattributive and predicate. An attributive adjective is one which stands in immediate association with the noun or pronoun which it modifies, as ”brown shoestrings,” “a capable salesman.”

A predicate adjective is one which stands in the predicate of the sentence after a copulative verb (am, ore, is, was, were, shall be, have been, had been, become, seem, etc.). Example: *’The order is read for shipment.”

Adverb
A word which modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Examples: “He will go soon” (modifies the verb “go”); ”He is unusually skillful” (modifies the adjective “skillful”); “He works very swiftly” (modifies the adverb “swiftly”).

Antecedent
A noun or pronoun to which a pronoun refers, or in place of which it is used. Examples: “Mr. Jones came home Thursday. He brought back an unusually large number of orders” (the noun “Mr. Jones” is the antecedent of the personal pronoun “he”); “

The man who was here yesterday was Mr. Smith” (the noun “man” is the antecedent of the relative pronoun who”); “He whom I described …” (the pronoun *’he” is the antecedent of the relative pronoun “whom”). Apposition (in apposition with).

A noun or pronoun is said to be in apposition with another noun or pronoun when it stands imediately after the first noun or pronoun, with no connecting word between the two, and names the same person or thing. Example: “Mr. Johnson, president of the company” (“president”is in apposition with “Mr. Johnson”). Cardinal Number. That form of the numeral which expresses directly the number of units involved, as one, six, ten, twenty five. See Ordinal.

Case
That property of nouns or pronouns which indicates their grammatical relationship to other words. Modern English grammar recognizes three cases: Nominative, Possessive, and Objective.

Nouns have two forms for these three cases, one for the Nominative and Objective, and one for the Possessive: the latter is normally characterized in the singular by the addition of ‘s to the simple form of the noun, and in the plural by the addition of an apostrophe if the plural form ends in s, otherwise by the addition of ‘s. For the case forms of pronouns, see paragraph 87.

Clause
A group of words containing a subject and predicate. Clauses are of two principal types main or independent clauses, and dependent or subordinate clauses. Main or independent clauses are clauses which are capable of forming a complete sentence by themselves, as “Business has improved greatly since the beginning of the year.”

When two or more main clauses are grouped together in a sentence, they are said to be coordinate clauses, as “We were ready, but you caused a delay.” Dependent or subordinate clauses are clauses which are used in a sentence with the function of a single part of speech (noun, adjective, or adverb), and which, therefore, are not capable of forming a complete sentence by themselves.

A dependent clause used in a sentence with the function of a noun is called a noun clause. Example: “That business has improved greatly since the beginning of the year is becoming more and more apparent” (here the italicized group of words is used as the subject of the verb “is becoming”) .

A dependent clause used with the function of an adjective, that is, to modify a noun or pronoun, is called an adjective clause. Example: “The goods which you ordered are now ready to ship” (the clause in italics modifies the noun “goods”). When an adjectives ive clause, as in this example, is introduced by a relative pronoun it is said to be a relative clause.

A dependent clause used it the force of an adverb is called an adverbial clause. Examples: “he goods had been shipped when your telegram was received” (here the italicized clause modifies the verb ”had been hipped”); ”He works more rapidly than you ever did” (here he clause modifies the adverb ”more rapidly”).

Compound Subject
A subject consisting of two or more coordinate elements as, “The engine and the baggage car were demolished.”

Conjunction
A word used to join words or groups of words (i. e,, clauses or phrases) in a sentence. Conjunctions are of two lasses coordinating and subordinating. The first join words r groups of words of equal rank or of the same grammatical construction; they include and, but, or and nor. The second join dependent with independent clauses. The principal conjunctions of this type are when, where, though, since, because, hile, inasmuch.

Coordinate
Any words or groups of words that modify the same element in the sentence in the same way are said to be coordiate. So also are two or more main clauses in the same sequence. The two italicized phrases in the following sentence are ordinate: “The purpose of this letter is to call your attention o our new plan, and to set forth its merits.” declarative.

A sentence is said to be declarative when it asserts meting to be true. Example: “The market for iron castings as expanded greatly in the last two months.” exclamatory. A sentence is said to be exclamatory when it expresses strong surprise or other emotion. Example: “To think that after all we have done for him he should have left s so suddenly!”

Gerund
A form of the verb ending in “ing” used in the sentences a noun but without losing some of its verbal attributes i. e., ability to take an object, to be modified by an adverb, etc). Examples: “Selling goods is a fine art”; “By going to York he got his contract approved”; “We have no objectionto your ordering direct from Paris” {not “to you ordering”).

See also Phrase. Idiom. A form peculiar to any language; particularly, an expression sanctioned by usage, and not to be explained grammatically or logically. Thus, it is idiomatic to say, ”He is in prisonj’* but not to say “He is in reformatory,” Imperative.

A sentence is said to be imperative when it expresses a command or direct request. Example: “Take advantage of this offer at once.” Infinitive. A form of the verb, usually but not always introduced by “to,” which is used in a sentence either as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Examples: “To believe his story without proof would be foolish” (here the infinitive “to believe” introduces a phrase which is used as the subject of the verb “would”); ‘The first thing to do is to survey the field” (here the infinitive “to do” modifies “thing”); “We are ready to grant you full credit facilities” (the infinitive “to grant” modifies the adjective “ready”).

See also Phrase. Interrogative. A sentence is said to be interrogative when it asks a question. Example: “Do you wish us to ship by express or freight?” Intransitive. See Verb.

Modifier
Any element in a sentenceword, phrase, or clause which limits or explains another element. Nominative Absolute. A somewhat unidiomatic construction in which a substantive in the nominative case stands not as the subject of a verb, but in a subject-relation to a present participle, the whole phrase being used as an adverb: “The goods being ready, we telegraphed you.” Noim. Any word whose function is to name a person or thing: e. g., “dog,” “goodness,” “machine,” “John Smith.”severalclasses of nouns may be distinguished.

A Common Noun is the name that is applied to all members of a given class: as “ship,” “chair,” “typewriter.” A Proper Noun is the name which used to distinguish an individual from the other members of the same class; as, “Boston,” “John Smith,” “The Chicago Tribune,” “The American Steel and Wire Company.”

A Collective Noun is the name of a group which can be thought of as a single unit or as composed of many individuals; as, “committee,” “squad,” “firm,” “company.” Number. That property of a noun or pronoun, usually expressed by a distinctive form, which indicates whether one or more than one object or person is designated.

There are two numbers Singular and Plural. Object. The word has three uses in modern English grammar namely, in the phrases “direct object,” “indirect object,” and “object of a preposition.”

A Direct Object is a word standing in the predicate of a sentence and designating the person or thing affected by the action expressed by the verb; ‘He sent me the book” (“Book” is the direct object of “sent”). An Indirect Object is a word standing in the predicate and designate the person or thing to whom or for whom the action expressed by the verb was performed (“Me” in the preceding illustration is the indirect object of “sent”).

An Object of a Preposition is the noun or pronoun which the preposition enables one to use either as an adjective or an adverb. In the sentence, “The contract was signed by the President,” “President” s placed in an adverbial relation to the verb “signed” by means of the preposition “by”; it is said to be the object of “by.” Ordinal.

That form of the numeral which indicates the place of a unit in a series; as first, sixth, tenth, twenty-fifth. See Cardinal. Parenthetical. A word, phrase, or clause thrown into a sentence that would be grammatically complete without it, is said to be parenthetical. Examples: “We do not, however, intend to accept his offer”; “By waiting until spring this was his argument they would find the market much more favorable to them.”

Participle
A form of the verb used in a sentence as an adjective. There are three forms of the participle, the Present, the Past, and the Perfect. Examples: “writing” {present), “written” (past), “having written” (perfect); “going” (present), *’gone” (past), “having gone” (perfect); “loving” (present), “loved’* (past), “having loved” (perfect). See Phrase. Passive. See Voice.

Phrase
A group of words not containing a subject and predicate, used in a sentence with the function of some part of speech (adjective, adverb, etc.). Phrases are of four classes according to the part of speech by which they are introduced.

An Infinitive Phrase is a phrase introduced by an infinitive. Like the infinitive by itself (see Infinitive), it may take the place of either a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Example: “To sell goods effectively requires long training” (here the phrase is made up of the infinitive “to sell,” the object “goods,” and the adverb “effectively”; the whole phrase is the subject of the verb “requires”). A Participial Phrase is a phrase introduced by a participle.

Though a participle by itself is always an adjective, and consequently must always be attached to a noun or pronoun in the sentence, a participial phrase may be used either as an adjective (as in the sentence, “The man unloading coal is an ItaHan”) or as an adverb (as in the sentence, ” Having been out of town for a week, I have only just read your letter”).

A Gerund Phrase is a phrase introduced by a gerund; it is always used as a noun. Examples: ^^Running down hill is easy” (here the gerund phrase is the subject of the verb ”is”); “By buying your coal in the early summer you get the advantage of the lowest prices” (here the gerund phrase is the object of the preposition ”by”; the whole group “By . . . summer” is a prepositional phrase modifying “get”).

A Prepositional Phrase is a phrase introduced by a preposition. It may be used either as an adjective or as an adverb. If the former, it is also called an Adjective Phrase; if the latter, an Adverbial Phrase. Examples: “The man at the second desk is the Manager” (an adjective prepositional phrase modifying ”man*’); “We are willing to wait until the first of the month” (an adverbial prepositional phrase modifying the verb “wait”).

Predicate
That part of a sentence which makes an assertion about the subject; the verb and its modifiers.

Predicate Noun
A noun standing in the predicate of a sentence after a copulative verb {am, is, was, were, appear, become, etc.) and naming the same person or thing as the subject. Example: “The President of the company is Mr. Johnson.” Pronouns may be used in the same construction, as “This is he.” Predicate Substantive.

A more general term for “predicate noun.” Preposition. A word that enables one to use a substantive (i. e., a noun or pronoun) as an adjective or adverb. Thus, in the following sentence the preposition “to” makes it possible for the noun “city” to stand in an adverbial relation to the verb “went”:

“He went to the city.” The chief prepositions in English are in, out, by, from, to, toward, for, against, beneath, above, besides, beside, before, after, into, since, among, amid, within, notwithstanding, on account of. Principal Parts.

The forms of a verb on the basis of which all the others are constructed. In English, these are the present indicative, past indicative, and past participle. Pronouns. A word used in place of a noun, referring to a person or thing, but not naming it. There are five classes of pronouns personal, relative, demonstrative,

Interrogative, and Indefinite
The Personal Pronouns are /, you, he, she, it, and their various forms (me, our, them, etc.). Their antecedents may be either persons or things; they are called Personal Pronouns because they enable one to distinguish between the person speaking, or First Person (7, we, etc.), the person spoken to, or Second Person (you), and the person spoken of, or Third Person {he, she, it).

The Relative Pronouns are who, which, that, what, whoever, whatever, and their various case forms. They have a double function; they are pronouns in that they refer to an antecedent, and they are connective words in that they connect a dependent clause with some substantive in the main clause. The emonstrative Pronouns are this, that, these, and those. Their function is to refer emphatically to a person or thing. The Interrogative Pronouns are who, which, and what.

They are used to introduce questions. The Indefinite Pronouns include such words as one, everybody, some, all, which do not refer to a specific person or thing. Sentence. Grammatically, a sentence is a group of words containing at least one main clause. A sentence consisting merely of a main clause is called a Simple Sentence. Example: “It pays to advertise.”

A sentence consisting of a main clause and one or more dependent clauses is called a Complex Sentence, Example: “The goods concerning which you wrote last week had already been shipped when your letter came” (this sentence contains an adjective clause, ”concerning which . . , week” and an adverbial clause, “when . . . came”).

A sentence which contains two or more main clauses is called a Compound Sentence. Example: “We were ready, but you were not.” Subject. That part of a sentence of which anything is affirmed. Examples: ^’The order is ready”; ” ‘When will you come’ was the telegram.”

Substantive
A general term, embracing nouns and pronouns. Tense. That property of verbs which enables them, by changes in form, to indicate the time of the action. There are six tenses in English^present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect.

Transitive
See Verb. Verb. A word expressing action, being, etc., that enables a sentence to make a statement about a subject. A verb followed by a direct object is said to be a Transitive Verb. Example: “We have written two letters.”

A verb which makes an assertion without reference to any object is said to be Intransitive, Example: “I have been writing since dinner time.” A verb used to help make some form (tense, voice, etc.) of another verb is known as as Auxiliary Verb. Example: “We shall expect you on Saturday” (here “shall” helps to form the future tense of “expect”).

The chief auxihary verbs are be, have, may, can, will, shall, must, and do. Voice. A transitive verb may make a statement in two ways: it may indicate that the subject performed the action, or it may indicate that the action was performed upon the subject. If the former, the verb is said to be in the Active Voice; if the latter, in the Passwe Foice.

Examples: “We caW your attention to an error in your statement” (active); “Your attention is called to an error in your statement” (passive) . The passive of a verb is formed by prefixing some form of the auxiliary be to the past participle of the verb.

Rajesh Gurule

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